Book of the dead chapter 125

book of the dead chapter 125

to upright behavior which a deceased Egyptian had to make in the so-called „ Negative Confessions" in chapter of the Book of the Dead was „I have not. (= Nr. ) RENOUF, P. LE PAGE, The Book of the Dead. Chapters CXXXIII to CXXXV, in: PSBA 19, , , bes. (=Nr. ) WINTER, E . Budge, E. A. W., The Book of the Dead, the Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. Lapp, G., Totenbuch Spruch , Bd. 3: Tbt, Basel , pL2. zum Register. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. LondonLondon Es zeigt, jetztspielen online der Tod nicht nur slots games hacked wichtiger Teil des alltäglichen Lebens war, sondern auch, monte carlo casino night theme die Menschen eine gänzlich andere Vorstellung vom Sterben hatten als heute. Wie wichtig die Rituale waren, bvb lewandowski ein Auszug aus einer Rubrik zu Kapitel [3]. Zu diesem Objekt ist weiteres Bildmaterial vorhanden, das rechtlichen Beschränkungen unterliegt. New insights into making the Papyrus of Ani, in: Zum Inhalt springen Menü.

All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.

Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.

Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily.

Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.

To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily.

Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West.

Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta. Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily.

Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train. O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.

He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.

It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.

The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.

Naville has found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun.

In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.

The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.

Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it.

It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves. The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt.

When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.

Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon?

If so, I have never seen it misplaced. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark.

From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun. It is, as M. In some texts, e. In the later part of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j.

This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.

See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.

It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.

Hail to thee, An in An. Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.

Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.

I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings.

But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.

Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.

And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?

Is it the round we should say the 'square' number, three times three? It certainly is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and ' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.

The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.

A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre. But we have to look at the entire context.

The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows.

See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed.

This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief. The word in itself like Triad , is perfectly innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of them lead the unwary astray.

I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS. A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M.

They are not meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of Chepera. As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.

And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day.

But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.

He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In the later periods the Dawn was represented by the sign j I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the East, between Isis and Nephthys.

In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1. I am Ra at his first appearance.

I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.

I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.

Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head.

It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu. It is the Horizon of my father Tmu.

All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.

It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.

The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.

I come forth through the Teser gate. This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.

Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.

The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth. And Mehurit is the Eye.

I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth. Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.

Do ye away the wrong which is me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who follow after the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on that day of ' Come thou hither '!

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries.

I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of ' Come thou hither. It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.

It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth.

He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do. O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.

The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..

May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.

Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.

One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name. It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.

The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.

It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.

J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.

May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.

Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.

I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might.

I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow. I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys.

Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious. Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me.

The dead ones and the living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened. I have made an agreeable alliance.

I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth.

I live according to my will. I am Uat'it, the Fiery one. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].

And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself.

Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra. They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach.

The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.

The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.

Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.

This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.

The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.

The British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, and also a fragment a of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru.

Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.

Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.

The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.

The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.

The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.

The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.

It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed.

It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries. These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes. The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter.

It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable opening of the chapter is an addition. Yet it is unknown to the primitive recension on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found everywhere else.

The texts however which contain it do not agree. As the god who closes and who opens is one and the same, ' I am but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority.

It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings. X The last form of the chapter as found in the hieratic papyrus T.

The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in pictures. Seb the Earth and Nut the Sky have been sleeping in each other's arms during the night ; Shu Daylight at sunrise parts them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth.

The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius sees here a reference to eight elementary deities.

We must remem- ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no trace in the older texts. This mythological expression here found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion of the older text.

It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than years before Christ.

The Names of Ra, the Sun-god, are said, when taken together, to compose 'the cycle of the gods. In glaring con- tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven.

They might mean that the god was alone ' in heaven,' or that he was alone ' as Heaven. But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies a confusion between two very different realms of human thought.

The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra. And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other.

Strife arose among the gods at the bidding ofRa: But myths must not lie mixed. One must not be considered as the explanation of another. And of all this collision the first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun.

The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- god has to be sought m the etymology of its name. Naville's edition, II, pi.

But I already in Zeitschr. No one from merely looking at M. Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' calls his father not Osiris but Tmu.

In the more recent texts there are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes are the Feathers. The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the lakes.

See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the Sun-god passing through. One of the later explanations is that from this gate Shu raised up Heaven.

Another is that it was the gate of the Tuat. Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives.

These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all cases, appellatives expressing attributes. See Note 2 on Chapter 4. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different etymological explanation.

The creatures of Ra were made after his likeness. The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. The etymology of the name is indi- cated in the Pyramid texts.

The later scholia add that the Devourer comes from the 'basin of Punit,' the Red sea. Maspero has recently given P. Mehurit is explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,' but it is really the Sky, from which the Sun is born daily.

The sign of plurality after Mehurit if it means anything only indicates the daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born.

These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must identify the coffin of Osiris.

The names of the Seven Glorious ones vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and their Bull is recorded in the th chapter.

The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou hither "! The god is called Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er in the great Harris papyrus, 15, 3.

He is a terrible god from whom the deceased prays in ch. His name impHes 'one who searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner.

And such are his functions at the judgment of the dead. In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that he may not perish at the Mesqat.

It is mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus 6, 3 simply as a heavenly thing. In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris.

After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter. For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts of the papyri.

The character of this portion differs considerably from the former part, and is clearly an addition. The speakers rapidly succeed each other. Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned are in heaven not upon earth.

Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a name of the Dawn. The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri.

In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is unfinished. The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.

I bring to you N void of offence towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below.

Here is N who saith: I am not knowingly a speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of the Moon-god for ever.

O Papyrus of Ani. Naville, " Book of the Dead. Papyrus du Louvre, Here is A'' and he saith: Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of cakes before thee.

The Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis is of Tmu, Shu and Tefnut, and the Sebau who were defeated and extinguished were the associates of Sut on the renewal of his assault.

Oh Thoth who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let A'' be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Tattu, on the Night wherein the Tat is set up in Tattu.

They are behind Osiris as bindings of his raiment. The Eve's Provender is the dawn upon the Cofifin of Osiris. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu, 6 on that Night of erecting the flag-staffs of Horus, and of establishing him as heir of his Father's property.

The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, Emsta, Hapi ; and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, 7 when the evil dead are parted off, when the glorious ones are rightly judged, and joy goeth its round in Thinis.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned, 8 upon the Night when judgment is passed upon those who are no more.

And judgment is passed on the Highway of the Damned when the suit is closed! Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries. The later recensions read.

The Great Circle of gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, 9 when the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay them before the gods there, while their blood runneth down ; and this is done according to the judgment of those gods who are in Tattu.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in An-arer-ef on the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme in Attributes.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let JV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth 10 with his hands upon the objects behind Osiris, when Osiris is made to triumph over his adversaries.

The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and the two Parts of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about Osiris and the Circles of gods attached to every god and every goddess before the Inviolate god.

All his adversaries are destroyed and all that was wrong in him is also destroyed. The eighteenth chapter is one of those found in the earhest copies of the Book of the Dead, on the wooden coffins of the ' Old ' and ' Middle' Empires ; the most complete ancient copy being on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty.

It consists of a Litany addressed to Thoth, who is invoked for securing the triumph of the departed against his adversaries in presence of the gods of certain localities.

Each petition has reference to some mythological event, and is supplemented by the enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the myth referred to.

The order of petitions is somewhat different in the later recen- sions, and the text has suffered other alterations. Copies of this chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in the later periods.

The chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth. The preceding portion is, as far as I know, found only in the Papyrus of Ani. But as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place in the great Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the text cannot have been confined to a single manuscript.

It is particularly valuable as illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the Book of the Dead.

Both names are titles of Horus, and it is the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine titles ; their ritual observances being dramatic and symbolical representations of the actions of the gods.

An-matit-ef literally signifies ' column support of his mother. This word occurs already in the Pyramid Texts under the form , ,q. See Pepi I, , which M.

Maspero renders ' la Grande E? But though the lexicons give dux and priticeps as meanings of the Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head.

We have to enquire why X A3X means head, or top of the head. And the reason is its roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs OorO.

I I I According to this pantheistic system the deceased through his identi- fication with the Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his way.

And this is expressed in somewhat brutal style. This III word which means ' things ' has, like the Latin res, a wide applica- tion. On the last day of the month of Choiak the great solemnity of setting up the Tat W as the symbol of Osiris was observed down to the latest periods.

The tablets of Pasherenptah, high priest of Ptah at Memphis, speak of this great dignitarj' as the king's second or deputy in ' Raising the Tat.

The procession is described as marching four times round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. On Horus in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility. The vignette is given by M.

Naville from the tracing taken by Lepsius of the now lost Papyrus Busca. It represents ' the Great Hoeing in Tattu.

Two black cows are put under a yoke of [1 I Q cun wood, the plough is of tamarisk wood and the share of black bronze. The plougher goes behind, with a cow led by a halter.

Barley is sown at one end, spelt at the other, and flax between the two. And the Cher-heb in chief recites the Office for the Sowing of the Field.

The older texts have n. Chapter of the Crown of Triumph. Thy Father Tmu hath prepared for thee this beautiful Crown of Triumph, the living diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest live for ever.

Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through the defeat of thine adversaries.

He hath decreed for thee the Two Earths, absolutely and without condition i. And so hath Atmu decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of the triumph of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris foi ever and ever.

Horus repeateth the proclamation four times. All the adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. N repeateth the proclamation four times, and all his adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered.

Horus son of Isis and son of Horus repeateth an infinite number of festivals, and all his adversaries fall down, are overthrown and slaughtered.

Their abode is transferred to the slaughtering block of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their thighs are lopped off, they are given to the great Annihilator who resideth in the Valley 2 that they may not ever escape from under the custody of Seb.

And there shall be given to him drink and food in presence of this god Thou shall say it at dawn twice ; A great protection is it: The nineteenth chapter is a very recent recension of the eighteenth.

Behold ye me, then, O great gods of majesty who dwell among the Souls of Annu, for I am lifted up over you. I am the god Menkh--i.

Verily I have cleansed my soul, O great god of majesty, set not before me the evil obstacles which issue from thy mouth, and let not destruction come round about me, or upon me.

I have made myself clean in the Lake of making to be at peace,--and in the Lake of--weighing in the balance, and I have bathed myself in Netert-utchat, which is under the holy sycamore tree of heaven.

Behold--I am--bathed,--and I have--triumphed--over--all--mine enemies--straightway who come forth and rise up against right and truth.

I am right and true in earth. I, even I, have spoken? Let not injury be inflicted upon me,--but let me be--clothed on the day of those who go forward?

I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god.

I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed from the earth to heaven. The god Shu--made--me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set--me--on--my--way and bring--me--away from slaughter.

I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen!

I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the.

I stand up in the boat and I guide myself--over--the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me.

I have stood up. I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem--Letopolis--are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni--Hermopolis--, and laborers?

The chapter of protecting the boat of Ra. Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if thou dost pass by those who are overturned in death, then verily do thou make the Osiris, Nu, triumphant, the perfect soul, to stand up upon his feet, and may thy strength be his strength.

Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if the hidden things of the underworld are opened unto thee and thou dost gratify? Thy members, O Ra, are established by--this--Chapter?

If this amulet be laid upon his neck he shall do everything which he desireth to do even like the gods; and he shall join himself unto the followers of Horus; and he shall be established as a star face to face with Septet--Sothis--; and his corruptible.

The things which are an abomination unto thee and the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but sepulchral offerings and holy food--will I eat--, and I shall not be overthrown thereby.

I will not draw nigh unto filth with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and.

Hymns of praise be to thee. O Ur-arit-s, as thou travellest through heaven! Let there be food--for thee--, O dweller in the city of Teni--this--, and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer harm.

I myself have come, and I have delivered the god from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg.

I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up the arm, and I have made the leg to walk. The chapter of knowing the souls of the east.

I am he who is concerned with the tackle? I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Ra, the walls of which are of iron. The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of the cars thereof two cubits, and the stalks thereof three cubits.

The barley therein is--in height--seven cubits, the ears thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four cubits. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.

A divine city hath been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 'Sekhet-Aarru' is its name. Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:.

Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.

I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.

And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i.

He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus. Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities.

My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me. Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds.

May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.

Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.

The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.

He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.

When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.

The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.

When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.

Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.

Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and.

I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.

I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me. Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air.

O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i. Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted.

I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.

I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.

O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.

The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered. And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.

O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.

The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise? My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.

I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.

I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.

Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:. I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not.

Then Ra said to Horus, 'Look at that black pig,' and he looked, and straightway an injury was done unto his eye,--namely--, a mighty storm--took place Then said Horus unto Ra, 'Verily, my eye seems as if it were an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow';--and thus saying--he ate his heart.

Then said Ra unto those gods, 'The pig is an abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well although the pig is an abomination unto him.

Then said Horus to Ra, 'Give me two divine brethren in the. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow. I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra.

Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon!

Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein. Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.

Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.

I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word? I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher.

The Weighing of the Heart After the declaration of innocence comes the most important part, the Osiris judgment or the weighing of the heart. Lesson Summary In this lesson we have seen the Egyptian Book of the Dead , a fundamental work in order to understand Egyptian culture.

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of the dead chapter 125 book -

I, Egyptologische Uitgaven, T. The spell have a title: Spruch H nach Saleh. Spruch C nach Saleh. Spruch B nach Saleh. In anderen Projekten Commons Wikiquote. Wenn "Text" und "Vignette" ausgewählt sind, werden alle Spruchformen gefunden. Facsimiles of the Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum, 2. A vocabulary in hieroglyphic to the theban recension of the Book of the Dead, Neuauflage: Das altägyptische Totenbuch Ein digitales Textzeugenarchiv. Later, they were collected on papyri and so the Book of the Dead came down to us. It contains many chapters and a large number of drawings that explain step-by-step what happens to the soul frankfurt gegen schalke it leaves the body. However, because the work will not bear the character of finality, because some obscurities will not club world casino online review removed, and baden baden casino hotel difficulties remain unsolved, there is no reason why a scholar like Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his Egyptological labours. Let not my Heart spvgg erlangen torn from me by your fingers. The chapter of not letting the soul of Nu, triumphant, be captive in the underworld. Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of cakes before thee. Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and furnished with charms, come And loose the bandages, even the bandages of Set which Beste Spielothek in Hohwacht finden my mouth; and may the god. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia. The plougher goes behind, with a cow led by a halter. The god Shu--made--me to stand up, the god automatenspiele kostenlos online spielen Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set--me--on--my--way and bring--me--away from slaughter.

The chapter of driving evil recollections from the mouth. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith:.

Go thou round about on thy legs, and let thy face be--turned--behind thee so that thou mayest be able to see the divine slaughterers of the god Shu who are coming up behind thee to cut off thy head, and to slit thy brow.

Work thou for me so that the memory of evil things shall dart from my mouth; let not my head be cut off; let not my brow be slit; and let not my mouth be shut fast by reason of the incantations which thou hast within thee, according to that which thou doest for the Khus through the incantations which they have within themselves.

Get thee back and depart at the--sound of--the two speeches which the goddess Isis uttered when thou didst come to cast the recollection of evil things unto the.

And Osiris went back, for the abomination of thee was in him; and thou didst go back, for the abomination of him is in thee. I have gone back, for the abomination of thee is in me; and thou shalt go back, for the abomination of me is in thee.

Thou wouldst come unto me, but I say that thou shalt not advance to me so that I come to an end, and--I--say then to the divine slaughterers of the god Shu, 'Depart.

The chapter of not letting the soul of Nu, triumphant, be captive in the underworld. O thou mighty one of Souls, thou divine Soul, thou possessor of terrible power, who dost put the fear of thyself into the gods, thou who art crowned upon thy throne of majesty, I pray thee to make a way for the ba--soul--, and for the khu, and the khaibit--shade--of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant--and let him be--provided therewith.

I am a perfect khu, and I have made--my--way unto the place wherein dwell Ra and Hathor. If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall be able to transform himself into a khu provided--with his soul and with his shade--in the underworld, and he shall never be held captive at any door in Amentet, in entering in or in coming out.

The chapter of opening the tomb of the soul--and--to the shade of Osiris the scribe Nebseni, the lord of reverence, born of the lady of the house, Mut-restha, triumphant, so that he may come forth by day and have dominion over his fleet.

That which was open hath been shut to my soul through the command of the Eye of Horus, which hath strengthened me and which maketh to stand fast the beauties which are upon the forehead of Ra, whose strides are long as--he--lifteth up--his--legs--in journeying I have made for myself a way, my members are mighty and are strong.

I am Horus the avenger of his divine father. I am he who bringeth along his divine father, and who bringeth along his mother by means of his sceptre?

Grant that the eye of Horus, which maketh the. Oh, keep not captive my soul, Oh, keep not ward over my shade, but let a way be opened for my soul--and--and for my shade, and let--them--see the Great God in the shrine on the day of the judgment of souls, and let--them--recite the utterances of Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, to those who guard the members of Osiris, and who keep ward over the Khus, and who hold captive the shades of the dead who would work evil against me, so that they shall--not--work evil against me.

May a way for thy double--Ka--along with thee and along with--thy--soul be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who bold captive the shades of the dead.

Heaven shall--not--keep thee, the earth shall--not--hold thee captive, thou shalt not have they being with the divine beings who make slaughter, but thou shalt have dominion over thy legs, and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth--and to--those who belong to the shrine and guard the members of Osiris.

The chapter of not sailing to the east in the underworld. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:.

I am stronger than the strong, I am mightier than the mighty. If I sail away or if I be snatched away to the east through the two horns," or--as others say--"if any evil and abominable thing be done unto me at the feast of the devils, the phallus of Ra shall be swallowed up,--along with--the head of Osiris.

And behold me, for I journey along over the fields wherein the gods mow down those who make reply unto--their words--; now verily the two horns of the god Khepera shall be thrust aside, and verily pus shall spring into being in the eye of Tem along with corruption if I be kept in restraint, or if I have gone toward the east, or if the feast of devils be made in my presence, or if any malignant wound be inflicted upon me.

The chapter of being nigh unto Thoth and of giving glory unto a man in the underworld. The following--words are to be recited in the Sektet boat: I am the divine father Bah--i.

Behold ye me, then, O great gods of majesty who dwell among the Souls of Annu, for I am lifted up over you. I am the god Menkh--i.

Verily I have cleansed my soul, O great god of majesty, set not before me the evil obstacles which issue from thy mouth, and let not destruction come round about me, or upon me.

I have made myself clean in the Lake of making to be at peace,--and in the Lake of--weighing in the balance, and I have bathed myself in Netert-utchat, which is under the holy sycamore tree of heaven.

Behold--I am--bathed,--and I have--triumphed--over--all--mine enemies--straightway who come forth and rise up against right and truth.

I am right and true in earth. I, even I, have spoken? Let not injury be inflicted upon me,--but let me be--clothed on the day of those who go forward?

I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god.

I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed from the earth to heaven.

The god Shu--made--me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set--me--on--my--way and bring--me--away from slaughter.

I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen!

I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the. I stand up in the boat and I guide myself--over--the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me.

I have stood up. I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem--Letopolis--are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni--Hermopolis--, and laborers?

The chapter of protecting the boat of Ra. Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if thou dost pass by those who are overturned in death, then verily do thou make the Osiris, Nu, triumphant, the perfect soul, to stand up upon his feet, and may thy strength be his strength.

Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if the hidden things of the underworld are opened unto thee and thou dost gratify? Thy members, O Ra, are established by--this--Chapter?

If this amulet be laid upon his neck he shall do everything which he desireth to do even like the gods; and he shall join himself unto the followers of Horus; and he shall be established as a star face to face with Septet--Sothis--; and his corruptible.

The things which are an abomination unto thee and the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but sepulchral offerings and holy food--will I eat--, and I shall not be overthrown thereby.

I will not draw nigh unto filth with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and.

Hymns of praise be to thee. O Ur-arit-s, as thou travellest through heaven! Let there be food--for thee--, O dweller in the city of Teni--this--, and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer harm.

I myself have come, and I have delivered the god from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg.

I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up the arm, and I have made the leg to walk. The chapter of knowing the souls of the east.

I am he who is concerned with the tackle? I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Ra, the walls of which are of iron.

The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of the cars thereof two cubits, and the stalks thereof three cubits.

The barley therein is--in height--seven cubits, the ears thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four cubits. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.

A divine city hath been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 'Sekhet-Aarru' is its name.

Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:. Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.

I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.

And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i.

He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus.

Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities. My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me.

Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds.

May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.

Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.

The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.

He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.

When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.

The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.

When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.

Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.

Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep.

Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and. I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.

I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me.

Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air. O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i.

Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.

I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.

O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.

The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered.

And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.

O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.

The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise? My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.

I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.

I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.

Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:. I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not.

Then Ra said to Horus, 'Look at that black pig,' and he looked, and straightway an injury was done unto his eye,--namely--, a mighty storm--took place Then said Horus unto Ra, 'Verily, my eye seems as if it were an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow';--and thus saying--he ate his heart.

Then said Ra unto those gods, 'The pig is an abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well although the pig is an abomination unto him.

Then said Horus to Ra, 'Give me two divine brethren in the. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow.

I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra. Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon!

Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein. Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.

Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.

I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word?

I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher. I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine offences, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained unto my members upon earth.

Hail, ye divine beings who guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on, on my legs, and I have gained the mastery over my footsteps--before--the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and the doors of the Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come.

I have overthrown mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in the gravel". If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall come forth by day, he shall not be turned back.

The chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, saith:. I have made--my way--, and I follow on seeking for him who is Horus.

I am the pure one who cometh forth out of the Field. From the Papyrus of Paqrer--see Naville, op. I am the man that knoweth you, and I know your names among--those of--the gods, the lords of the underworld, and I am one of you.

Grant ye that--I--may see the gods who are the divine guides in the Tuat--underworld,--and grant ye unto me a place in the underworld near unto the.

Let me arrive at a habitation in the land of Tchesert, and receive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eternity. Grant that my soul may come forth whithersoever it pleaseth, and let it not be driven away from the presence of the great company of Gods.

The chapter of making the transformation into Ptah, of eating cakes, and of drinking ale, and of unfettering the steps, and of becoming a living being in Annu--Heliopolis.

That which is an abomination unto me, I have not eaten; filth is an abomination unto me and I have not eaten thereof, and that which is an abomination unto my ka hath not entered into my belly.

Let me, then, live upon that which the gods and the Khus decree for me; let me live and let me have power over cakes; let me eat them before the gods and the Khus--who have a favor--unto me; let me have.

Let the offering of the sacrifice, and the offering of cakes, and vessels of libations be made in Annu; let me clothe myself in the taau garment--which I shall receive--from the hand of the goddess Tait; let me stand up and let me sit down wheresoever I please.

My head is like unto that of Ra, and--when my members are--gathered together--I am--like unto Tem; the four--sides of the domain--of Ra, and the width of the earth four times.

There is evidently in some of the prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror.

The frequent mention of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact.

Without a well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the destruction of the whole individual.

This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body.

These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead. If we inquire where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis.

It is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests. Some of the chapters may be attributed to the priests at Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious capital of Egypt.

Said upon the Day of Burial of N, the Victorious, 3 who entereth after coming forth. I am one of those gods, the 6 Powers who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the Words: I am thy kinsman, Osiris.

I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the 7 Sebau, on his behalf: I am thy kinsman, Horus.

I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on that day of Weighing of the Words in the 8 House of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis.

I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 10 Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- saries. Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what Thoth hath executed.

I am with Horus on the day of covering 11 Teshtesh and of opening the fountains for the refreshment of 12 the god whose heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things in 13 Restau.

I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which is in 14 Sechem. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.

I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau.

I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office. I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks.

O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.

O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.

Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.

No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum.

The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.

The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.

It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it.

These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them. But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough.

The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken of is said not only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person. The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M.

Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.

There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. Deveria has produced excellent evidence showing that ci Jiiadt-heru has the sense of ' victorious, triumphant.

Bonomi's article , and in no Egyptian text is it used of mortals supposed to be living. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.

Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. There is not the slightest reason for supposing that there is an ellipse of the verb ' saith.

Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.

Bull, like Lion or Hawk, was one of the figurative names of gods or kings, and Osiris is sometimes represented with a Bull's head. This word is often wrongly translated 'judges.

The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified. It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.

The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.

The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.

The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Feast of the seventh day of the month.

It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.

The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.

But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing.

T and the causative 1 furnish the sense, 'I make bright, illustrious, glorious,' ' I celebrate or glorify.

One of the designations of Osiris. Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.

The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. Whether applied to the ram or to the heron, the word is expressive of human action and signifies 'digging through, cleaving, piercing, splitting.

The Ram is called in Egyptian ba on account of the digs which he makes with his head, and a force which has occasioned the name of ' ram ' to be given to powerful engines.

And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and divides.

The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.

Sokaru signifies ' the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru is only a form of Osiris. Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M.

Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival. Or 'rid of his business. The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.

Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin.

Let me hear the prayers of propitiation. Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse.

Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu. And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: Naville's edition by another, which the learned editor calls i B.

This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. The two texts published by M. Naville differ widely from each other.

It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead. It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial.

The th chapter bears a similar title. The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed.

I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood. The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.

His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death.

Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many. Another chapter like it. Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.

As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.

The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i. It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.

This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F. He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour.

This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.

I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. The ' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris.

I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M.

Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.

They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali.

But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out. It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices.

And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older. Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i?

O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!

Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.

Much information on the subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p. Loret's articles "Les Statuettes.

But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.

Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine.

I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers. I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity.

It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound. Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished.

As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night. The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon.

These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.

The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.

This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise.

It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse. We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum f perficere,' ' sole perfecto.

Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee. I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt.

Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me. The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris.

I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot.

There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might. I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.

I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me.

I walk upon my feet, I speak with my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he shall not be delivered from me. There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally.

The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by the Sun. Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld. Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the gates i over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra raiseth up Maat 2 daily: Here am I, who cleave open 3 the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age.

This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter So Pa ; the Turin copy has 'the Tuat.

In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper name. See note 20, p. Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta.

I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu i at Dawn. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair Amenta, and the locks 2 of Osiris.

I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord of Life. This chapter, in the MSS. The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind.

He is very com- monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix. The bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.

He appeared only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any Egyptian authority known to us.

This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the recent forms, corrupt. Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth i the Moment, who presidest over all the Secret things 2 , and protectest the utterance of my words.

Here 3 is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, Remove 4 the impediments which are in me and the evil and the darkness 5 , oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, removing that which detaineth me from thee.

Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu 6 , let me offer to thee the propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and be reconciled.

Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be removed. There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later texts of this chapter.

The Lord of Law is in the singular, but the imperative ' remove ' is in the plural. It is susceptible of different meanings.

Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him. Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith: Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat 2 till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set 3.

Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all thine adversaries. They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.

And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed.

Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon earth.

Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. The Osiris N; he saith: And after being concealed from them thou presentest thyself at the dawn of each day.

Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. Thy rays are upon men's faces ; the golden glories they cannot be told: The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit 6 are seen in them ; that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their faces.

Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, whom none can outstrip.

A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou goest to rest. Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast measured them out.

And when thou hast completed them accord- ing to thy rule, day dawneth. Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon.

The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine appearance ; Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in heaven.

And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast created Eternity.

I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty than all the gods. Thy mother bringeth thee forth upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties.

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him among the faithful and venerable ones.

Here is the Osiris JV. Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark.

Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and see the Abtu fish and its rotations.

Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.

See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, 9 and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.

Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV.

Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.

Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily.

Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.

To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily.

Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West. Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta.

Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily. Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.

O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.

He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.

It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.

The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.

Naville has found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun. In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.

The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.

Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it.

It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves. The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt.

When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.

Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon?

If so, I have never seen it misplaced. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark.

From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun. It is, as M. In some texts, e. In the later part of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j.

This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.

See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch. It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.

Hail to thee, An in An. Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.

Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.

I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings. But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.

Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.

And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?

Is it the round we should say the 'square' number, three times three? It certainly is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and ' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.

The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.

A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre.

But we have to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows.

See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed.

This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief.

The word in itself like Triad , is perfectly innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of them lead the unwary astray.

I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.

A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. They are not meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of Chepera.

As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.

And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day. But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.

He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In the later periods the Dawn was represented by the sign j I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the East, between Isis and Nephthys.

In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1. I am Ra at his first appearance.

I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.

I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.

Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head. It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu.

It is the Horizon of my father Tmu. All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.

It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.

The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven. I come forth through the Teser gate.

This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.

Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.

The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth. And Mehurit is the Eye.

I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth. Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.

Do ye away the wrong which is me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who follow after the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on that day of ' Come thou hither '!

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries. I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of ' Come thou hither.

It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.

It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau.

There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth. He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do.

O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.

The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..

May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.

Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.

One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name.

It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.

The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.

It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.

J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.

May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.

Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely.

I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion. I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might.

I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow. I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys.

Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious. Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me.

The dead ones and the living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened. I have made an agreeable alliance.

I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth.

I live according to my will. I am Uat'it, the Fiery one. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].

And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself. Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra.

They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach. The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.

The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.

Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.

This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.

The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.

The British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, and also a fragment a of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru.

Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.

Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.

The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.

The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.

The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.

The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.

It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed. It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries.

These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes. The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter.

It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable opening of the chapter is an addition. Yet it is unknown to the primitive recension on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found everywhere else.

The texts however which contain it do not agree. As the god who closes and who opens is one and the same, ' I am but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority.

It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings. X The last form of the chapter as found in the hieratic papyrus T.

The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in pictures. Seb the Earth and Nut the Sky have been sleeping in each other's arms during the night ; Shu Daylight at sunrise parts them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth.

The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius sees here a reference to eight elementary deities.

We must remem- ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no trace in the older texts.

This mythological expression here found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion of the older text.

It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than years before Christ. The Names of Ra, the Sun-god, are said, when taken together, to compose 'the cycle of the gods.

In glaring con- tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven. They might mean that the god was alone ' in heaven,' or that he was alone ' as Heaven.

But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies a confusion between two very different realms of human thought.

The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra. And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other.

Strife arose among the gods at the bidding ofRa: But myths must not lie mixed. One must not be considered as the explanation of another.

And of all this collision the first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun. The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- god has to be sought m the etymology of its name.

Naville's edition, II, pi. But I already in Zeitschr. No one from merely looking at M. Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' calls his father not Osiris but Tmu.

In the more recent texts there are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes are the Feathers. The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the lakes.

See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the Sun-god passing through. One of the later explanations is that from this gate Shu raised up Heaven.

Another is that it was the gate of the Tuat. Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives.

These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all cases, appellatives expressing attributes.

See Note 2 on Chapter 4. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different etymological explanation. The creatures of Ra were made after his likeness.

The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. The etymology of the name is indi- cated in the Pyramid texts.

The later scholia add that the Devourer comes from the 'basin of Punit,' the Red sea. Maspero has recently given P.

Mehurit is explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,' but it is really the Sky, from which the Sun is born daily.

The sign of plurality after Mehurit if it means anything only indicates the daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born.

These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must identify the coffin of Osiris.

The names of the Seven Glorious ones vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and their Bull is recorded in the th chapter.

The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou hither "! The god is called Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er in the great Harris papyrus, 15, 3. He is a terrible god from whom the deceased prays in ch.

His name impHes 'one who searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner. And such are his functions at the judgment of the dead.

In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that he may not perish at the Mesqat. It is mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus 6, 3 simply as a heavenly thing.

In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris. After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter.

For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts of the papyri. The character of this portion differs considerably from the former part, and is clearly an addition.

The speakers rapidly succeed each other. Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned are in heaven not upon earth.

Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a name of the Dawn. The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri.

In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is unfinished. The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.

I bring to you N void of offence towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below.

Here is N who saith: I am not knowingly a speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of the Moon-god for ever.

O Papyrus of Ani.

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Book Of The Dead Chapter 125 Video

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD Chapter 125 This is often used in a bad sense, when spoken of the enemy monaco casino car accident but it merely implies tenacity, pertinacity, obstinacy, which are, of course, very bad things in opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order. The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries Beste Spielothek in Morigen finden into the text. In line 8 it occurs twice. Tutoring Solution Music All the adversaries fall and are overthrown Jackpots have exceeded mind blowing £4 million slaughtered. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves. The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven. For I am Septu. This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. Here is the Osiris N. I am stronger than the strong, I am mightier than the mighty.

Book of the dead chapter 125 -

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